News

CRAVEzero @ SBE Conference 2019

Call for abstracts: SUSTAINABLE BUILT ENVIRONMENT D-A-CH CONFERENCE 2019
Transition Towards a Net Zero Carbon Built Environment
11 – 14 September 2019
Graz University of Technology, Austria

Special Session 12 CRAVEzero – Next generation nZEBs

nZEB Processes

The influence on the process decreases while the costs increase during the life cycle of a nZEB

Download the full report here:

In addition to legal and urban boundaries, buildings are essentially defined by the client. Owners or investors want to construct or renovate buildings for a specific purpose. Also, the buildings technical quality and the comfort standard have to be achieved within project specific budget limitations. Architects and specialised planners translate the client’s ideas and wish into real plans and are responsible for the appropriate execution of the building project. Construction companies and craftsmen from numerous different disciplines are involved in constructing the building.

(more…)

Parametric models for buildings

Download the full report here:

Figure1: Analysis of the balanced primary energy demand related to the net present value for the different technology combinations for case study Solallen.

Already today buildings can be realised in the nearly zero and plus energy standard. These buildings achieve extremely low energy demands and low CO2 emissions and can be operated economically. For this reason, the motivation in the CRAVEzero project is not only based on the energy characteristics of buildings, but also on their life-cycle costs. However, the broad market deployment of these buildings is progressing very slowly so far, as methods and processes for the cost-optimal integration of efficiency measures and renewable energies are not yet sufficiently described and therefore not yet common. As a consequence – many poorly planned buildings are criticised for the fact that the actual energy consumption of highly efficient buildings is higher than the predicted demand and that high-efficiency standards are expensive and uneconomical. The influence of the user behaviour of such energy efficient buildings is another aspect, which has to be considered to evaluate the impact on the energy consumption of the building.

The identification of suitable methods for the energetic-economic optimisation of highly efficient buildings in all life-cycle phases is a prerequisite for the broad market implementation.

On the basis of the results, the statement is confirmed: nZEBs are economical. It can now be shown that the additional costs of efficiency measures are so low that highly efficient buildings have the lowest life-cycle costs. nZEB measures only have a small percentage influence on construction costs, but can reduce CO2 emissions many times over. When considered over the service life, these measures are usually cost-neutral or even economical as can be seen in Figure 2.

Figure2: net present value (€/m²) relation to the balanced CO2 emissions (kgCO2/(m²a)) of all variants of the case study Solallén

Figure3: Cost performance (€/m²))of the case study Solallén over the whole life-cycle of the building; comparison of nZEB variant with a building according to the CRAVEzero approach

(more…)

CRAVEzero lecture series in Germany

Four lectures in the context of CRAVEzero took place this february in the context of the building seminars of the KS Süd e.V. four times in southwest Germany by project partner Köhler & Meinzer. The target groups included architects, engineers, housing associations and construction companies (https://www.kalksandstein.de/ks_sued/).

Report – Typology canvas of business models is online

Download the full report

The recently published report “D5.1: Typology canvas of business models” covers the development and detailed description of a methodology for the analysis of business models (BMs) within the framework of nZEBs. With this methodology the CRAVEzero project partners were able to describe, validate and evaluate their own BMs. The analysis comprises a total of 17 BMs. They are bundled and their main characteristics are provided and compared according to the Business Model Canvas.

Figure 1: Life cycle phases of nZEBs and business model allocation

(more…)

CRAVEzero Workshop – Next generation nZEBs @ ISEC Conference Austria


A dedicated CRAVEzero workshop in the scope of the ISEC conference took place on the 4th of October in Austria. The International Sustainable Energy Conference – ISEC 2018, organized by AEE INTEC, sees itself as a promoter for innovative ideas in the areas of renewable energy systems and resource efficiency, and is intended to be a forum for research, industry and energy policy.

WORKSHOP “CRAVEzero – Next generation nZEBs – Demonstration buildings and life cycle perspectives”

About: While realized nZEBs have clearly shown that the nearly-zero energy target could be achieved using existing technologies and practices, most experts agree that a broad scale shift towards nearly-zero energy buildings require significant adjustments to prevailing building market structures. The workshop focuses on proven and new approaches to cost reduction of nearly zero energy buildings at all stages of the life cycle.

Moderation: Tobias Weiß  (AEE INTEC)

WS Part01: Life Cycle approach and integrated design processes

– Roberta Pernetti (EURAC)
– Jens Glöggler (ATP Sustain)

WS Part02: Market uptake of nZEBs through new business models and NZEB technologies

– Benjamin Köhler (Fraunhofer ISE)
– Christian de Nacquard (Bouygues)

(more…)

Survey: Market uptake of nZEBS – Challenges and added values

Survey: Market uptake of nZEBS - Challenges and added values

There are three short questions to answer, do not worry it will just take three minutes.

How it Works:

1. Klick on blue "stakeholder button" below according to your profession

2. The results will be displayed life on the website below

Read More

nZEB technology guideline is online

Download the full report here:

Different technologies are necessary to achieve the energy standard of nZEBs.​​ They can be summarised in three​​ main categories​​ (i)​​ Passive Energy Efficiency solutions, (ii)​​ Active Energy Efficiency solutions​​ and (iii)​​ Renewable​​ Energies. All approaches/ technologies are needed in order to realise nZEBs. And all of them play a major role in the CRAVEzero frontrunner buildings!

An excellent thermal insulation​​ and air-tightness of the building are of major importance, which can be seen in the rather low U-values of the building envelope elements in the case study buildings (opaque elements​​ between​​ 0.07 and 0.25​​ W/(m²K), windows mainly between 0.7 and 1.2 W/(m²K)).​​ In addition to adequate insulation, shading, usable thermal mass, natural ventilation and passive cooling possibilities are essential to minimise the energy demand of the buildings.

For the supply of the remaining energy demand for heating and cooling, highly efficient technologies using – if applicable – renewable energies should be installed. In the case study buildings, mainly heat pumps and district heating with low specific emissions are used – in several cases in combination with solar thermal. Boilers only play a minor role (see figure below). In addition and for the integration of renewable energies, in most buildings thermal storages are installed.

Concerning renewable energies, solar technologies and specifically PV are the dominant technologies used in the CRAVEzero frontrunner buildings (see figure below). Both​​ PV and solar thermal​​ are well developed and relatively easy to install on or at buildings.​​ They do and will play a major role in nZEBs as these buildings are only possible with the use of onsite renewable technologies.

A detailed description of the technologies installed in the CRAVEzero case study buildings can be found in the recently published Guideline II: nZEB Technologies available here.

Download the full report here:

The European policies on nZEBs

The EPBD, as recast in 2010 (EPBD 2010/31/EU), together with the Energy Efficiency Directive (EED 2012/27/EU) and the Renewable Energy Directive (RED 2014/53/EU) represents the key regulatory framework adopted at EU level to promote an increase of energy efficiency and renewable energy production.

 

Energy Efficiency Directive (EED 2012/27/EU)

In October 2012, EU adopted the Energy Efficiency Directive 2012/27/EU. It established a set of measures for the promotion of energy efficiency, at all stages of the energy chain, starting from the production to final consumption. The aim is to achieve the target of 20% of energy savings by 2020. In November 2016, the European Commission proposed an update to this Directive, including a new 30% target by 2030.

The Directive applies minimum requirements and objectives, which are complementary to the indications of the EPBD 2010/31/EU; the Member States are allowed to set more tightening ones. Key measures to enhance the energy efficiency promoted by the directive are the followings:

  • Energy saving efficiency targets for the Member States.
  • Exemplary role of public buildings – article 5 sets binding renovation targets for public buildings.
  • Energy efficiency obligations – obligations related to the previous point are also imposed. For instance, every year starting from 2014, each MS shall refurbish 3% of the buildings owned or occupied by central government.
  • Energy audits and management – article 8 states that MS shall promote cost-effective, independent and high-quality energy audits for all final customers. Also, non-small and medium-sized enterprises shall implement energy or an environmental management system.
  • Metering and billing – good energy consumption management requires that the consumer can easily access to data through individual metering and billing information.
  • Qualification, accreditation and certification schemes, energy services and energy performance contracting, split incentives, online platform.

Although the above-mentioned measures have a higher impact on existing buildings, the application can also improve the energy efficiency of new constructions. In particular, the improvement of monitoring and billing approach as well as a structured energy management of buildings can foster the proper operation of nZEBs and guarantee the energy performance targets.

(more…)

CRAVEzero Working Meeting Bolzano

  

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Existing nZEB business models

Below, a number of business models found in the major European markets are described using a BM profile. This contains some of the most relevant business model building blocks following Osterwalder and Pigneur (2010), such as:

  • Value proposition,
  • Customer relationship and
    segment,
  • Revenue streams and cost
    structure

Part of the analysed business models were provided by the contributing partners of CRAVEzero (BM1-17). The other business models have been described by the partners as well, based on the information found on the respective companies’ websites. Some companies have provided their own BMs. However, it is not guaranteed that the information have been understood and filled into the profiles correctly and holistically.

BM_reader

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

Large parts of the report are based on information of business models that belong to companies which are not contributing to the CRAVEzero project. The information have been retrieved from the respective websites. Therefore, it cannot be guaranteed that statements made in the course of this report are entirely correct.

Download the full report

Stakeholder related processes

Figure1 Stakeholders’ time expectancy of a nZEB project

In order to be able to optimise existing processes, technical qualifications, actions to be taken and roles must be known and tasks and functions of the stakeholders assigned. The assessment of the process for nZEBs depends strongly on the perspective. Building owners, investors, tenants, the construction industry, providers of energy efficiency solutions and planners have different interests and are involved in different phases in the life cycle of buildings. There is a general lack of understanding, transparency and uniform methods when it comes to the overall process of nZEBs.  Which costs and time horizons are significant for different actors and to what extent?

Figure2: Stakeholders’ influence in nZEB life cycle phases

(more…)

nZEB Processes

The influence on the process decreases while the costs increase during the life cycle of a nZEB

Download the full report here:

In addition to legal and urban boundaries, buildings are essentially defined by the client. Owners or investors want to construct or renovate buildings for a specific purpose. Also, the buildings technical quality and the comfort standard have to be achieved within project specific budget limitations. Architects and specialised planners translate the client’s ideas and wish into real plans and are responsible for the appropriate execution of the building project. Construction companies and craftsmen from numerous different disciplines are involved in constructing the building.

(more…)

Parametric models for buildings

Download the full report here:

Figure1: Analysis of the balanced primary energy demand related to the net present value for the different technology combinations for case study Solallen.

Already today buildings can be realised in the nearly zero and plus energy standard. These buildings achieve extremely low energy demands and low CO2 emissions and can be operated economically. For this reason, the motivation in the CRAVEzero project is not only based on the energy characteristics of buildings, but also on their life-cycle costs. However, the broad market deployment of these buildings is progressing very slowly so far, as methods and processes for the cost-optimal integration of efficiency measures and renewable energies are not yet sufficiently described and therefore not yet common. As a consequence – many poorly planned buildings are criticised for the fact that the actual energy consumption of highly efficient buildings is higher than the predicted demand and that high-efficiency standards are expensive and uneconomical. The influence of the user behaviour of such energy efficient buildings is another aspect, which has to be considered to evaluate the impact on the energy consumption of the building.

The identification of suitable methods for the energetic-economic optimisation of highly efficient buildings in all life-cycle phases is a prerequisite for the broad market implementation.

On the basis of the results, the statement is confirmed: nZEBs are economical. It can now be shown that the additional costs of efficiency measures are so low that highly efficient buildings have the lowest life-cycle costs. nZEB measures only have a small percentage influence on construction costs, but can reduce CO2 emissions many times over. When considered over the service life, these measures are usually cost-neutral or even economical as can be seen in Figure 2.

Figure2: net present value (€/m²) relation to the balanced CO2 emissions (kgCO2/(m²a)) of all variants of the case study Solallén

Figure3: Cost performance (€/m²))of the case study Solallén over the whole life-cycle of the building; comparison of nZEB variant with a building according to the CRAVEzero approach

(more…)

Report – Typology canvas of business models is online

Download the full report

The recently published report “D5.1: Typology canvas of business models” covers the development and detailed description of a methodology for the analysis of business models (BMs) within the framework of nZEBs. With this methodology the CRAVEzero project partners were able to describe, validate and evaluate their own BMs. The analysis comprises a total of 17 BMs. They are bundled and their main characteristics are provided and compared according to the Business Model Canvas.

Figure 1: Life cycle phases of nZEBs and business model allocation

(more…)

nZEB technology guideline is online

Download the full report here:

Different technologies are necessary to achieve the energy standard of nZEBs.​​ They can be summarised in three​​ main categories​​ (i)​​ Passive Energy Efficiency solutions, (ii)​​ Active Energy Efficiency solutions​​ and (iii)​​ Renewable​​ Energies. All approaches/ technologies are needed in order to realise nZEBs. And all of them play a major role in the CRAVEzero frontrunner buildings!

An excellent thermal insulation​​ and air-tightness of the building are of major importance, which can be seen in the rather low U-values of the building envelope elements in the case study buildings (opaque elements​​ between​​ 0.07 and 0.25​​ W/(m²K), windows mainly between 0.7 and 1.2 W/(m²K)).​​ In addition to adequate insulation, shading, usable thermal mass, natural ventilation and passive cooling possibilities are essential to minimise the energy demand of the buildings.

For the supply of the remaining energy demand for heating and cooling, highly efficient technologies using – if applicable – renewable energies should be installed. In the case study buildings, mainly heat pumps and district heating with low specific emissions are used – in several cases in combination with solar thermal. Boilers only play a minor role (see figure below). In addition and for the integration of renewable energies, in most buildings thermal storages are installed.

Concerning renewable energies, solar technologies and specifically PV are the dominant technologies used in the CRAVEzero frontrunner buildings (see figure below). Both​​ PV and solar thermal​​ are well developed and relatively easy to install on or at buildings.​​ They do and will play a major role in nZEBs as these buildings are only possible with the use of onsite renewable technologies.

A detailed description of the technologies installed in the CRAVEzero case study buildings can be found in the recently published Guideline II: nZEB Technologies available here.

Download the full report here:

Life cycle cost benchmarks of case studies all over Europe

Download the full report here:
The second part of the deliverable 2.2 reports an overview of the results of the case studies analysis, with the comparison of relevant indicators, costs, and performances among the case studies considering the effect of local specificities, different context and use of the buildings (i.e. normalised results).

 

Demo case Typology Location
Bouygues Green Home Residential Nanterre (France)
Les Héliades Residential Angers (France)
Residence Alizari Residential Malaunay (France)
ATP sustain NH Tirol Residential Innsbruck (Austria)
Kohler&Meinzer Parkcarré Residential Eggenstein (Germany)
Moretti More Residential Lodi (Italy)
Isola nel Verde A Residential Milan (Italy)
Isola nel Verde B Residential Milan (Italy)
Skanska Solallén Residential Växjö (Sweden)
Väla Gård Office Helsingborg (Sweden)
ATP sustain Aspern Office Vienna (Austria)
I.+R. Schertler Office Lauterach (Austria)

Table 3. Case studies analyzed

 

Figure 1: Life-cycle cost breakdown – average share of the phases

Figure 2 Life-cycle cost breakdown – normalized values.

 

(more…)

Life cycle costs of nZEBS – CRAVEzero methodology

Download the full report here:
The EPBD recast (EPBD recast-European Commission, 2010) established that all new buildings have to reach by the end of 2020 the nZEB target set by the Member States (MS). In order to reach the nZEB targets, while keeping investments sustainable, it is strategic to focus more on the operational phase (Moran, Goggins, and Hajdukiewicz (2017).

The scope of the report D2.2 “Spreadsheet with LCCs – Cost reduction and market acceleration for viable nearly zero-energy buildings” is to provide a CRAVEzero cost spreadsheet, implementing a comprehensive and structured methodology in order to evaluate the LCC with a particular focus on nZEBs.

 

Methodology adopted

A data collection template for the evaluation of the nZEB life-cycle costs has been developed as a starting point for the upcoming CRAVEzero LCC tool. The template is structured according to the approach provided by two main sources:

  1. The Standard ISO 15686-5 (Buildings and constructed assets — Service life planning — Part 5: Life-cycle costing)
  2. The European Code of Measurement, elaborated by the European Committee of the Construction Economists (CEEC, n.d.).

The first reference provides the main principles and features of an LCC calculation, while the second one describes an EU-harmonised structure for the breakdown of the building elements, services, and processes, in order to enable a comprehensive evaluation of the building life costs.

The tool PHPP (Feist et al., 2012) has been used for the energy performance analysis. This tool summarises all the information dealing with the energy-related features of the building components and services and provides a comprehensive overview of the technologies installed.

(more…)

NZEB Construction Market

The building sector in Europe is responsible for approximately 40% of the total energy consumption. The percentage accounted for residential buildings amounts at 27% of the total. Hence, this sector has a key role in the path towards the enhancement of energy efficiency and reduction of greenhouse emissions at EU level. The EPBD, together with the Energy Efficiency Directive and the Renewable Energy Directive, established a set of measures with the aim to provide in Europe the conditions for significant and long-term improvements in the energy performance of the construction market.

The EPBD established that, starting from 2021 (2019 for public buildings), all new buildings must be nZEB. On average, the volume of housing development across Europe amounts 2.8 completed apartments per 1000 citizens (Figure 1). The number of households, at European level, is expected to increase by more than 15% by 2050 compared to the number measured in 2013.

Figure 1: Number of completed dwellings per 1000 citizens (Deloitte, 2017).

(more…)

Residence Alizari

Owner: HABITAT 76
Architect:
ATELIER DES DEUX ANGES
Energy Concept: ZEB (regarding heating, cooling, ventilation, lighting and DHW) and PassivHaus
Location: Malaunay (France)
Construction Date: 2015
Key technologies: High-performance envelope (triple glazing, internal AND external insulation); Double-flux ventilation with heat recovery; Centralized wood boiler; PV panels

LIFE CYCLE COSTS

 

 

 

 

 

WLCC (40)

MAINTENANCE

MAINT./INVEST.

LCC (40)

ENERGY (40)

RES/LCC

 

 

6.327.300 €

1.699.010 €

42%

6.299.009 €

517.317 €

1%

​​ 

 

INVESTMENT COSTS

Investment Costs

Design Costs

Building site​​ 

management

Construction Costs

4.082.683 €

465.400 €

430.961 €

3.186.322 €

nZEb technologies

Construction cost [€]

3.186.322 €

RES

3%

HVAC

9%

DHW

0%

VMC

3%

Heating

6%

Windows

3%

Final Energy Consumption

Energy demand heating [kWh]

37.743

Energy demand cooling [kWh]

5.420

Energy demand DHW [kWh]

94.842

Household elt. + aux. [kWh]

71.720

Annual RES generation [kWh]

29.201

Annual CO2​​ Emissions [kgCO2]

61.088

 

BREAKDOWN OF THE UNITARY​​ LCC

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 LCC (40)

2230 €/m2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Investment

1445 €/m2

 

 

 

 

Design

165 €/m2

 

 

 

Preliminary

18 €/m2

 

Definitive

0 €/m2

 

Executive

147 €/m2

 

 

Materials

1023 €/m2

 

Building Elements

552€/m2

Building Services

186€/m2

Construction

1128 €/m2

 

 

RES

29 €/m2

Other

103 €/m2

 

 

 

 

Labor

257 €/m2

Building site management

153 €/m2

 

 

 

 

Operation

785 €/m2

 

 

 

 

 

Energy

183 €/m2

 

 

Consumed

231 €/m2

 

Heating

23 €/m2

Cooling

11 €/m2

DHW

57 €/m2

Household el.+ aux. ​​ 146 €/m2

Produced

48 €/m2

 

 

Maintenance

601 €/m2

 

Envelope

247 €/m2

 

HVAC

291 €/m2

 

RES

32 €/m2

 

 

 

 

Other ​​ 31 €/m2